The Implicit Limitation Problem
Warning: This glorified scrapbook of a post is under heavy construction.
So this is closely related to Tang and to denotational semantics.
fib : Int > Int
fib 0 = 1
fib 1 = 1
fib n = fib (n  1) + fib (n  2)
My issue with conventional programming languages (well, one of the issues), is that when you define a function, or any expression, really, the way to compute that expression is implicitly a part of what you’ve written, whether you like it or not. For example, there may be a plethora of ways to compute fib 5
: you could interpret the definition you’ve given, you could compile it to another language (such as x86 intstructions) with or without optimisations, those optimisations could add memoisation or significantly transform the implementation, both interpretation and execution could be parallelised, or even distributed over a network, you could compile the implementation to compute shaders which you would then execute on a GPGPU, you could synthesise hardware instructions that configure an FPGA to implement this function, etc. However, in a conventional programming language, you don’t have control over such things, the best you can do is pass some oxygen (O2
) on the command line to tell the blackbox compiler to try harder to come up with something that will hopefully run a little faster. Needless to say, oxygen won’t introduce any parallelism or distribution or GPGPU programming or hardware synthesis, it will just attempt a few transformations which you can’t specify^{1} guided by heuristics you don’t even see and give you an executable that’s very difficult to analyse any further.
Dependent type systems let you use strong equational theories to reason about and transform your programs within the language itself.
two sides of the same coin:
 analysis/inference derives highlevel properties from concrete implementations
 synthesis derives concrete implementations from highlevel properties
there are pros and cons to both:
 concrete implementations are tied to the host model of computation, which makes them actually runnable – you can invoke an implementation (perhaps after compiling it to some lowerlevel language) to evaluate the function at a given point
 but concrete implementations are difficult to reason about, and, as a result, difficult to optimise. When a programmer uses a function, they don’t reason about its implementation, but about its interface. In good languages, this interface is exactly the type of the function. Sadly, there are no good languages, though whether this is something the languages themselves should be blamed for is questionable.
 highlevel properties are much easier to reason about – after all, propositions about programs are the sort of highlevel properties I have in mind. However, these are difficult interpret. Even the simple example of defining
or : Bool > Bool > Bool
via identitiesor True x = True
andor False x = x
runs into the “issue” of parallel or.
okay, I thought about this a little more and I’ve come up with some other things:
 the language should focus on abstraction, both in types and in values (MLs do a good job by equating LHS’s and RHS’s of functions)
 “straightforward” program synthesis, where there is exactly one way to synthesise a program/proof according to an interface (the type, really) in a given context (maybe the context alone is enough), isn’t an achievement! You’ve already done all the work necessary to specify what exactly you mean, by the interface, that interface defines the set of possible implementations. If that set has exactly one element you shouldn’t be required to spell it out! Of course, proofs of existence may be complicated, whether or not they are unique, but if they are unique, and the compiler can synthesise them, it shouldn’t treat the surface language as a cache or memoisation table. The proof should only be shown to the programmer if they wish to see it.
 dependence on the judgments? the judgmental structure of a proof
 yeah, so this (the above point) is problematic. Maybe it’s another “sad fact of life” that you need to depend on some structure in order to express anything (though I can imagine both scenarios in which this is trivially true and scenarios where this gets complicated), but anyway: if you assume Churchencoded naturals in an
add : Nat > Nat > Nat
you’ve tied the notion of addition to this structure. You can go on to prove commutativity, associativity, etc. ofadd
, but changing the underlying structure of the numbers even with an isomorphism (such as to/from binary encodings) is tricky. Commutativity, associativity, etc ofadd
on binary nats still hold, but they do so via something that’s far from computationally efficient. These proofs depend on the structure ofadd
judgements and transitively on the structure ofNat
judgements (which are the numbers themselves), so they require conversion to this format beforeadd
can be applied (and the judgements for these properties don’t actually change, they just include the conversion to Church numerals at the start and a conversion back at the end). However, there is something aboutadd
that doesn’t care what underlying structure one uses for the numbers. This is not expressed in the type ofadd
, it is perhaps expressed after the fact via these highlevel properties, but those unfortunately depend on the particular implementation ofadd
. Thus there is the essence ofadd
which I don’t know how to talk about. Dependency on implementations corresponds to dependency on judgements, which means this is a problem of the judgemental equational theory itself. Recall that the axiom of choice is independent of ZF set theory, but showing so requires some intellect: it is probably easier to assume the AoC in ZF proofs although it is not actually required. Thus this may be a sad fact of life… Or perhaps we need a new logic devoid of these problems…

While you can enable or disable the existing ones, you can’t specify your own optimisations. If you want to add custom transformations to improve the efficiency of the optimiser, you have to fork and likely compile the entire compiler. ↩